Effects of Magnesium, Chromium, Iron and Zinc from Food Supplements on Selected Aquatic Organisms
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing magnesium (Mg), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) on selected aquatic organisms including freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus and Raphidocelis subcapitata, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. Thirty different food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn were analyzed. Results were expressed as effective concentration 50 (EC50), i.e. growth inhibiting Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn (mg/L) concentration immobilizing 50% of treated organisms. Particular metal EC50 differed significantly (p<0.001) among study organisms, as follows (in ascending order): Scenedesmus subspicatus EC50 Fe (median 46.9 mg/L)<Zn (59.8 mg/L)<Mg (73.0 mg/L)<Cr (88.1 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120)=36.856; p<0.001); Raphidocelis subcapitata EC50 Fe (median 44.9 mg/L)<Zn (52.6 mg/L)<Mg (62.2 mg/L)<Cr (76.8 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120)=44.0936; p<0.001); Daphnia magna EC50 Zn (median 59.4 mg/L)<Cr (79.2 mg/L)<Fe (80.8 mg/L)<Mg (82.0 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120)=39.2637; p<0.001); and Lemna minor EC50 Zn (median 131.0 mg/L)<Fe (186.8 mg/L)<Mg (192.5 mg/L)<Cr (240.4 mg/L) (KW-H(3;120)=58.6567; p<0.001). Uncontrolled environmental disposal of food supplements containing Mg, Cr, Fe and Zn exerts adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, legal provisions should regulate both the utilization and disposal of food supplements into the environment.
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