Penetrating Arrow Injury – Causing the Death of an Early Medieval Woman from the Muzla-Cenkov Locality in Slovakia (9th – 10th century CE)

Branislav Kolena, Lenka Luptáková, Michaela Rendeková, Mária Tonková, Mária Vondráková, Milan Hanuliak


The osteological remains of a juvenile woman, 17- 20 years, was discovered in grave number 23/88 at Muzla-Cenkov in the Nove Zamky district of Slovakia. Wound resulting from an iron arrowhead was located in her second lumbar vertebral body. Because of presence of the arrowhead in vertebral body and by the complete absence of any signs of healing processes, we conclude on perimortal injury which probably proved quickly extinguishing the life. aDNA analysis was instituted for increased accuracy and reliability in establishing sex of this juvenile individual. An association with the old Hungarian troops who previously occupied this area was concluded, based on analytic evidence.


iron arrowhead; penetrating injury; Slovakia; early medieval; old Hungarian troops

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