Smoking Habits According to Metabolic Traits in an Island Population of the Eastern Adriatic Coast
The study deals with the connection between metabolic syndrome (MS) and smoking habits of 1602 males and 828 females aged 18-97 years from the island of Hvar, Croatia. The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was higher in males (18.1-31.2%) than females (9.7-24.2%) by all five criteria that were defined, except the one by AHA/NHLBI. The overall prevalence of MS reached 12.9% by WHO using body mass index (BMI), 13.1% by EGIR, 14.5% by WHO using waist to hip ratio (WHR), 18.2% by NCEP/ATP III, 18.9% by AHA/NHLBI, and 26.7% by IDF criteria. The prevalence of smoking habits was similar in males (24.7%) and females (23.8%). The frequency of mild, moderate and heavy smoking was higher in males than females, 35.8:26.6%, 31.0:27.0%, and 35.9:7.7%, respectively. Age and sex had significant influence on BMI and WHR, both being highest in male former smokers (28.15 kg/m2 and 0.973, respectively) and in female non-smokers (27.18 kg/m2 and 0.869, respectively). The appearance of arterial hypertension (HTN) differed according to frequency of smoking; males had higher prevalence than females using WHO and EGIR criteria of blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg, even after age adjustment. In males and females respectively, systolic HTN in non-smokers was 20.7:15.1%, in former smokers 17.9:15.2% and in current smokers 16.9:13.0%; diastolic HTN in non-smokers was 19.8:12.7%, in former smokers 22.4:10.5%, and in current smokers 11.3:9.1%. By NCEP, AHA, IDF criteria of blood pressure≥130/85 mmHg, arterial HTN was also more prevalent in males than females; systolic HTN in non-smokers being 31.4:19.8%, in former smokers 29.9:12.7%, and in current smokers 25.4:11.1%; and diastolic HTN in non-smokers was 20.5:11.5%, in former smokers 24.8:11.3%, and in current smokers 14.7:9.4%. According to AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria of high plasma glucose as≥5.6 mmoL/L, both males and females in all the three categories of smokers had glucose levels above the normal range (5.80-6.31mmol/L in males and 5.80-5.91 mmol/L in females), except female current smokers (5.51 mmol/L). By WHO, EGIR and NCEP/ATP III criteria of high plasma glucose as≥6.1 mmmol/L, only male non-smokers (6.31 mmol/L) and former smokers (6.24 mmol/L) had elevated levels. Considering normal HDL-cholesterol as>1.0 mmol/L in males and>1.2 mmol/L in females, both males and females in all the three smoker's categories had HDL within normal range; females having higher HDL levels (1.52 mmol/L) than males (1.30 mmol/L). Considering normal value for triglycerides as<1.7 mmol/L, male former smokers (1.76 mmol/L) and current smokers (1.81 mmol/L) had higher levels; and as a whole group triglycerides were higher in males than females, 1.66:1.37 mmol/L respectively. The prevalence of MS differed between males and females using various MS criteria. Both males and females had the highest prevalence of MS by IDF criteria; male former smokers 60.5%, female non-smokers 51.4%, male non-smokers 53.8%, female former smokers 38.2%, and lowest in both male and female current smokers 39.8 and 33.0% respectively. In males, the lowest prevalence of MS was observed in non-smokers by AHA criteria (30.5%), in former smokers by WHO criteria (35.7%), and in current smokers using EGIR criteria (18.1%). Females in all the three smoker's categories had the lowest prevalence of MS using EGIR and WHO criteria. MS were less prevalent in currentsmokers than in non-smokers and former smokers
smoking habit, BMI, WHR, glycaemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, metabolic traits
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