Variation in Indicators of Respiratory Functions among Warsaw Adolescents in Relation to Ambient Air Pollution and Smoking
This work presents results of studies on secondary school adolescents inhabiting two regions of Warsaw: Śródmieście district (Downtown) and Międzylesie (Wawer district - Vicinity), conducted in 2006. These two districts significantly differ according to air pollution, which is much higher in Downtown than in Vicinity. The sample consists of 219 boys and 225 girls aged 13-16 years. The measurements included body height and weight and 8 respiratory variables of lung function: VC, FEV1, TV, MV, IRV, ERV, Ap, RR. Additionally information about education of parents, number of children in family, number of rooms in a house/apartment, smoking habits of pupils and their parents were provided. Sib-sib size, parents education level and number of rooms in apartment or house were included in a principal component analysis (PCA) to obtain a common factor representing general socio-economic status (SES) for families. First factor scores were used as covariates in the further analysis. The influence of air pollution on respiratory variables was evaluated using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results show that there are significant relations of air pollution to Ap, MV and IRV and smoking habits of individuals on their MV and TV. In the heavier polluted region there are observed longer time of Ap and higher values of IRV. There is an opposite reaction of MV on air pollution and smoking. The MV values are lower in the heavier polluted area but presents greater values in smoking individuals. Also values of TV are greater if individuals smoke comparing with non smokers.